Table 2. Summary of Selected Studies Examining the Effects of Hypnosis, Aromatherapy, and Music Therapy in Association With Otolaryngologic Surgery
StudyStudy DesignNumber of PatientsTreatment ModalitySurgery TypeOutcomesFindings
Rapkin et al, 199137Voluntary, exploratory36HypnosisHead and neck cancer surgeryHypnosis effectNegative correlations between hypnosis and surgical complications and blood loss
Accardi and Milling, 200936Comprehensive methodological review528HypnosisTonsillectomy/adenoidectomyPostoperative painReduction in postoperative pain compared to patients who did not undergo hypnosis
Soltani et al, 201331Randomized, controlled48AromatherapyTonsillectomyPostoperative painReduction in required analgesics after surgery compared to the no-aromatherapy group
Wotman et al, 201732Prospective, controlled pilot100AromatherapyTonsillectomy, septoplasty, functional endoscopic sinus surgeryPreoperative anxietyReduction in preoperative anxiety (P < 0.001) compared to the no-aromatherapy group
Tse et al, 200540Randomized, controlled57Music therapyNasal surgeryPostoperative painReduction in postoperative pain (P < 0.0001), systolic blood pressure, heart rate, and required analgesics compared to the no-music therapy group