Table 2.

Participant Characteristics

CharacteristicAll Participants n=846
Mean age, years ± SD54.4 ± 14.4
Sex
 Female415 (49.1)
 Male430 (50.9)
Race
 Black or African American248 (29.3)
 White559 (66.1)
 Other39 (4.6)
Ethnic background
 Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin47 (5.6)
 Not Hispanic or Latino798 (94.4)
Marital status
 Single196 (23.2)
 Separated or divorced127 (15.0)
 Widow or widower85 (10.0)
 Married or partnered438 (51.8)
Education
 Technical school graduate and below386 (45.7)
 Some college and above459 (54.3)
Paina
 Acute413 (58.7)
 Chronic125 (17.8)
 Acute and chronic166 (23.6)
  • aPain type was collected only on postintervention participants (n=704).

  • Note: Data are reported as n (%) unless otherwise indicated.