TableĀ 1.

Microorganisms Causing Osteomyelitis With Specific Risk Factors

Clinical Association/Risk FactorCommon Microorganism
Sickle cell diseaseStaphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp, Streptococcus pneumoniae
TraumaPolymicrobial (gram-negative, gram-positive, and anaerobic bacteria)
Chronic granulomatous diseaseSerratia spp, Nocardia spp, Burkholderia cepacia, Aspergillus spp
Intravenous drug useStaphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida spp
Animal or human bitesPasteurella multocida, Eikenella corrodens
Kitten exposure, HIV infectionBartonella henselae
Exposure to farm animalsCoxiella burnetii
DiabetesPolymicrobial (Staphylococcus aureus common, coagulase-negative Staphylococci, Streptococci, Enterobacteriaceae, and anaerobic bacteria)
Puncture woundStaphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  • HIV, human immunodeficiency virus.