Table 1.

Literature Search Strategy

Boolean OperatorSearch Terms
(accent OR dialect)
AND(communication OR “communication barriers” OR “clinical communication” OR “communication skills” OR “communication competency” OR “cross-cultural communication” OR “professional communication” OR “culturally and linguistically diverse” OR CALD OR bilingual OR multilingual OR “English as a second language” OR ESL OR “limited English proficiency” OR consultation OR speech OR “clear speech” OR speak OR pronunciation OR intelligibility OR comprehension OR understanding OR perception OR “speech perception” OR stereotype)
AND(health OR healthcare OR medicine OR medical OR clinic OR clinical OR “health occupations” OR “foreign professional personnel” OR “foreign medical graduates” OR “international medical graduate” OR IMG OR clinician OR physicians OR doctor OR nurses OR nursing OR pharmacists OR pharmacy OR dentists OR dental OR “allied health professional” OR “occupational therapists” OR OT OR “occupational therapy” OR “physical therapists” OR PT OR “physical therapy” OR “speech-language pathologist” OR SP OR SLP OR “speech-language pathology” OR caregivers OR patients OR “healthcare consumers”)
AND(“accent modification” OR “accent reduction” OR “accent management” OR “accent adaptation” OR “accent processing” OR “accent identification” OR “accent detection” OR “listening exercise” OR “accent listening” OR “vocal imitation” OR intervention OR therapy OR treatment OR remediation OR program OR training OR education OR teaching OR strategy OR initiative OR support OR technology OR tool)
AND(evaluate OR assess OR outcome OR results OR measure OR standards OR test OR “English language ability test” OR “English proficiency test” OR screening OR effect OR impact OR efficacy OR cost-effectiveness OR retention OR attrition OR clarity OR feedback)
  • Note: The search terms in italic font are medical subject heading (MeSH) terms.

  • CALD, culturally and linguistically diverse; ESL, English as a second language; IMG, international medical graduate; OT, occupational therapy; PT, physical therapy; SLP, speech-language pathology; SP, speech-language pathologist.