TableĀ 1.

Psychiatric and Nonpsychiatric Etiologies of Catatonia2,3

Psychiatric EtiologiesNonpsychiatric Medical Condition Etiologies
Thought disorders Schizophrenia Schizoaffective disorder Brief psychotic disorder Schizophreniform disorderAutoimmune Autoimmune encephalitis NMDA-receptor encephalitis Autoimmune thyroiditis Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome
Mood disorders Bipolar disorder Major depressive disorderNeurologic Temporal lobe epilepsy Status epilepticus Lesion of thalamus or parietal or frontal lobe Bilateral globus pallidus disease Head trauma Kleine-Levin syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorders Autism spectrum disorderMetabolic Diabetic ketoacidosis Homocystinuria Hypercalcemia Hepatic encephalopathy Hyponatremia
Medication induced NeurolepticsGenetic Prader-Willi syndrome
Medication induced Corticosteroids, immunosuppressants
  • NMDA, N-methyl-D-aspartate.