Table 4.

Multivariate Linear and Logistic Regression of Outcomes by Household Income Status and Social Determinants of Health After Controlling for Age, American Society of Anesthesiologists Classification, and Surgery Type

Household Income Status/Social DeterminantLOS, Hours, βDischarge to SNF, Odds Ratio30-Day ED Return, Odds Ratio30-Day Readmission, Odds Ratio
Above the Maryland median household income–3.6 (P=0.313)2.216 (P=0.018)0.576 (P=0.180)0.364 (P=0.174)
Exercises 3 or more times per week–8.1 (P=0.105)0.218 (P=0.058)1.277 (P=0.631)1.118 (P=0.871)
High levels of stress4.3 (P=0.653)0.000 (P=0.998)0.000 (P=0.998)3.004 (P=0.217)
Attends church5.9 (P=0.261)0.776 (P=0.675)0.250 (P=0.021)1.402 (P=0.602)
Currently married or has a life partner23.4 (P<0.001)0.183 (P=0.005)0.908 (P=0.859)0.701 (P=0.573)
Experienced spousal abuse (physical, emotional, or sexual)–10.2 (P=0.452)0.000 (P=0.999)0.000 (P=0.999)0.000 (P=0.999)
Financial strain (somewhat hard or worse)14.3 (P=0.022)0.000 (P=0.997)2.285 (P=0.133)0.754 (P=0.732)
Above high school education–6.5 (P=0.297)0.834 (P=0.783)0.566 (P=0.357)>100 (P=0.997)
Has any food worry0.7 (P=0.927)0.858 (P=0.889)1.558 (P=0.513)0.000 (P=0.998)
Has any transportation problem21.1 (P=0.135)5.820 (P=0.140)2.338 (P=0.450)3.469 (P=0.281)
Drinks alcohol 4 or more days per week–1.5 (P=0.704)0.498 (P=0.138)0.635 (P=0.316)0.656 (P=0.509)
  • Note: Statistically significant values are shown in bold.

  • ED, emergency department; LOS, length of stay; SNF, skilled nursing facility.