Table 3.

Attributes of Hypodermic Needles Used During Internal Jugular Vein Cannulation

Outside DiameterLengthBevel Bias AnglebTip Grind TypecW-t-P SiliconedW-t-P LatexdSharpnessVenipuncturesf, n=228 (122 male, 106 female)
ManufacturergaammmmdegreesggClassificationeTotal, n (%)Male, nFemale, n
Becton, Dickinson and Companyg210.825, 38, 5115LP^10.011.1A-93 (41)4548
Cook Medical SST-CSVh210.84014LP^11.0A-56 (25)2729
Navilyst Medical Inc/ AngioDynamicsi Cook Medical (SST)i210.87022LP^18.526.3B-37 (16)2512
Arrow-Teleflex Incorporatedj200.98817BB^18.113.7I-11 (5)74
Arrow-Teleflex Incorporatedk181.36425LP^19.925.7B-31 (14)1813
  • aBirmingham wire gauge.

  • bPrimary (first) needle grind (bias) angle, measured with respect to needle long axis using light microscopy, computerized photographic enlargement, and protractor.

  • cNeedle tip geometric classifications: LP^ – lancet point with all 3 grinds on the same side of the needle tip; BB^ – back bevel point with the second and third grinds on the opposite side of the tip from the first.

  • dW-t-P is the weight in grams needed for a needle and attached syringe, perched atop an elastomeric membrane, to puncture the membrane. Membranes were 270-μm thick silicone rubber (McMaster-Carr) or 400-μm thick latex (Covidien). Each value is a mean of 5 consecutive trials performed with at least 7 needles of the same type.

  • eNearest traditional sharpness classification, usually based on primary grind (bias) angle (A-, bias angle ∼12° [ie, intramuscular bevel]; B-, bias angle ∼18° [ie, venous bevel]), but here also classified based on our W-t-P determinations. Arrow-Teleflex Incorporated 20-gauge needles, having a nontraditional back-bevel tip grind geometry (bias angle 14°) and W-t-P values between A- and B- needles, are categorized as intermediate sharpness (I-).

  • fNumber of internal jugular vein cannulations using each needle type.

  • gMarketed for intramuscular/subcutaneous injection.

  • hExtra-sharp Cook Medical Micropuncture needle.

  • iNavilyst Medical Inc/AngioDynamics and Cook Medical (SST) microaccess needles all had traditional B- tip geometry and nearly identical W-t-P measurements.

  • jNeedle in the Arrow-Teleflex Incorporated central venous cannulation kit that is provided as a component of an 18-gauge catheter-over-20-gauge needle device. During this project, such needles were used without the catheter as part of the microaccess technique.

  • kBare cannulating needle in the Arrow-Teleflex Incorporated central venous cannulation kit.

  • BB, back bevel point; LP, lancet point; W-t-P weight to puncture.