TableĀ 1.

Needle Overinsertion Injuries Reported to Have Occurred During Internal Jugular Venous Cannulation Despite Ultrasound Guidance

Injured StructureComplications
Carotid artery1-4Hematoma, stroke, arteriovenous fistula
Subclavian artery5-7Hematoma, arteriovenous fistula
Vertebral artery8-10 (mainly pediatric)Hematoma, pseudoaneurysm
Pleura/lung11,12Pneumothorax, hemothorax
Thoracic duct13,14Cutaneous chyle leak
Stellate ganglion15,16Horner syndrome