Table 2.

Patient-Reported Outcomes

Time Point
Outcome Measure (Minimum Clinically Important Difference)Preoperative, n=112 Weeks, n=116 Weeks, n=113 Months, n=116 Months, n=91 Year, n=5
VAS pain (MCID=2.4)6.9 ± 1.33.7 ± 2.8a1.4 ± 1.7a1.1 ± 1.8a0.6 ± 0.7a0.2 ± 0.4a
P=0.001P<0.001P<0.001P<0.001P<0.001
ASES (MCID=27.1)40.3 ± 17.0NANA76.5 ± 17.4a86.2 ± 10.7a93.0 ± 5.5a
P<0.001P<0.001P=0.001
SANE (MCID=11.8)40.7 ± 23.7NANA72.3 ± 18.2a81.1 ± 10.2a85.6 ± 8.9a
P=0.003P=0.002P=0.007
VR-12 PCS (MCID=4.94)33.7 ± 6.8NANANA44.0 ± 7.0a49.7 ± 4.9a
P=0.003P=0.016
VR-12 MCS (MCID=5.99)46.4 ± 12.2NANANA57.2 ± 10.6a56.5 ± 12.5a
P=0.053P=0.252
  • aValues that surpassed the minimum clinically important difference and are thus clinically significant findings.

  • Notes: Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation. For all scores except VAS pain, higher scores are indicative of better outcomes. VAS pain is scored on a scale of 0 to 10, with 0 indicative of no pain and 10 indicative of maximal pain. The P values indicate the statistical significance compared to the respective preoperative score and were calculated from paired-samples t tests.

  • ASES, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Standardized Shoulder Assessment Form; MCID, minimum clinically important difference; NA, not assessed (at the specified time point); SANE, Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation; VAS, visual analog scale; VR-12 MCS, Veterans RAND 12-Item Health Survey mental component score; VR-12 PCS, Veterans RAND 12-Item Health Survey physical component score.